javax.crypto.BadPaddingException: Decryption error

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前言

进行接口调试时RSA加解密中的解密操作时报错,下面是详细的报错:

javax.crypto.BadPaddingException: Decryption error
	at sun.security.rsa.RSAPadding.unpadV15(RSAPadding.java:380) ~[na:1.8.0_131]
	at sun.security.rsa.RSAPadding.unpad(RSAPadding.java:291) ~[na:1.8.0_131]
	at com.sun.crypto.provider.RSACipher.doFinal(RSACipher.java:363) ~[sunjce_provider.jar:1.8.0_112]
	at com.sun.crypto.provider.RSACipher.engineDoFinal(RSACipher.java:389) ~[sunjce_provider.jar:1.8.0_112]
	at javax.crypto.Cipher.doFinal(Cipher.java:2165) ~[na:1.8.0_121]
	at XXXXX.util.RSACipherUtil.decrypt(RSACipherUtil.java:96) ~[classes/:na]
	at XXXXX.config.InitApiContextInterceptor.preHandle(InitApiContextInterceptor.java:97) ~[classes/:na]
	at org.springframework.web.servlet.HandlerExecutionChain.applyPreHandle(HandlerExecutionChain.java:136) ~[spring-webmvc-5.0.6.RELEASE.jar:5.0.6.RELEASE]
	at org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet.doDispatch(DispatcherServlet.java:986) ~[spring-webmvc-5.0.6.RELEASE.jar:5.0.6.RELEASE]
	at org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet.doService(DispatcherServlet.java:925) ~[spring-webmvc-5.0.6.RELEASE.jar:5.0.6.RELEASE]
	at org.springframework.web.servlet.FrameworkServlet.processRequest(FrameworkServlet.java:974) ~[spring-webmvc-5.0.6.RELEASE.jar:5.0.6.RELEASE]
	at org.springframework.web.servlet.FrameworkServlet.doGet(FrameworkServlet.java:866) ~[spring-webmvc-5.0.6.RELEASE.jar:5.0.6.RELEASE]
	at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:635) [tomcat-embed-core-8.5.31.jar:8.5.31]
	at org.springframework.web.servlet.FrameworkServlet.service(FrameworkServlet.java:851) ~[spring-webmvc-5.0.6.RELEASE.jar:5.0.6.RELEASE]
	at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:742) [tomcat-embed-core-8.5.31.jar:8.5.31]
	at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:231) [tomcat-embed-core-8.5.31.jar:8.5.31]
	at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:166) [tomcat-embed-core-8.5.31.jar:8.5.31]
	at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationDispatcher.invoke(ApplicationDispatcher.java:728) [tomcat-embed-core-8.5.31.jar:8.5.31]
	at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationDispatcher.processRequest(ApplicationDispatcher.java:472) [tomcat-embed-core-8.5.31.jar:8.5.31]
	at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationDispatcher.doForward(ApplicationDispatcher.java:395) [tomcat-embed-core-8.5.31.jar:8.5.31]
	at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationDispatcher.forward(ApplicationDispatcher.java:316) [tomcat-embed-core-8.5.31.jar:8.5.31]
	at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardHostValve.custom(StandardHostValve.java:395) [tomcat-embed-core-8.5.31.jar:8.5.31]
	at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardHostValve.status(StandardHostValve.java:254) [tomcat-embed-core-8.5.31.jar:8.5.31]
	at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardHostValve.throwable(StandardHostValve.java:349) [tomcat-embed-core-8.5.31.jar:8.5.31]
	at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardHostValve.invoke(StandardHostValve.java:175) [tomcat-embed-core-8.5.31.jar:8.5.31]
	at org.apache.catalina.valves.ErrorReportValve.invoke(ErrorReportValve.java:81) [tomcat-embed-core-8.5.31.jar:8.5.31]
	at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardEngineValve.invoke(StandardEngineValve.java:87) [tomcat-embed-core-8.5.31.jar:8.5.31]
	at org.apache.catalina.connector.CoyoteAdapter.service(CoyoteAdapter.java:342) [tomcat-embed-core-8.5.31.jar:8.5.31]
	at org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11Processor.service(Http11Processor.java:803) [tomcat-embed-core-8.5.31.jar:8.5.31]
	at org.apache.coyote.AbstractProcessorLight.process(AbstractProcessorLight.java:66) [tomcat-embed-core-8.5.31.jar:8.5.31]
	at org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol$ConnectionHandler.process(AbstractProtocol.java:790) [tomcat-embed-core-8.5.31.jar:8.5.31]
	at org.apache.tomcat.util.net.NioEndpoint$SocketProcessor.doRun(NioEndpoint.java:1468) [tomcat-embed-core-8.5.31.jar:8.5.31]
	at org.apache.tomcat.util.net.SocketProcessorBase.run(SocketProcessorBase.java:49) [tomcat-embed-core-8.5.31.jar:8.5.31]
	at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor.runWorker(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:1142) [na:1.8.0_131]
	at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor$Worker.run(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:617) [na:1.8.0_131]
	at org.apache.tomcat.util.threads.TaskThread$WrappingRunnable.run(TaskThread.java:61) [tomcat-embed-core-8.5.31.jar:8.5.31]
	at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:748) [na:1.8.0_131]

通过端点调试发现是这段代码报错:

在这里插入图片描述

针对上面的问题,我们要首先明白一点,RSA加解密是怎么工作的才能知道我们错误点在哪里?

RSA 简介:

通过百度可以知道RSA加密是一种非对称加密。可以在不直接传递密钥的情况下,完成解密。这能够确保信息的安全性,避免了直接传递密钥所造成的被破解的风险。是由一对密钥来进行加解密的过程,分别称为公钥和私钥。两者之间有数学相关,该加密算法的原理就是对一极大整数做因数分解的困难性来保证安全性。通常个人保存私钥,公钥是公开的。
 RSA加密对明文的长度有所限制,规定需加密的明文最大长度=密钥长度-11(单位是字节,即byte),所以我们项目开发时在加密和解密的过程中需要分块进行,要知道密钥默认是1024位,即1024位/8位-11=128-11=117字节。所以默认加密前的明文最大长度117字节,解密密文最大长度为128字。那么为啥两者相差11字节呢?是因为RSA加密使用到了填充模式(padding),即内容不足117字节时会自动填满,用到填充模式自然会占用一定的字节,而且这部分字节也是参与加密的。

密钥长度的设置就是上面例子的第32行。可自行调整,当然非对称加密随着密钥变长,安全性上升的同时性能也会有所下降。
   
   
解决办法:

package com.zcw.rsa;

import java.io.ByteArrayOutputStream;
import java.security.KeyFactory;
import java.security.KeyPair;
import java.security.KeyPairGenerator;
import java.security.PrivateKey;
import java.security.PublicKey;
import java.security.Signature;
import java.security.spec.PKCS8EncodedKeySpec;
import java.security.spec.X509EncodedKeySpec;
import javax.crypto.Cipher;
import org.apache.commons.codec.binary.Base64;

/**
 * @ClassName : TestRSA
 * @Description : 进行RSA加解密练习
 * @Author : Zhaocunwei
 * @Date: 2020-04-24 10:50
 */
public class TestRSA {
    /**
     * RSA最大加密明文大小
    */
private static final int MAX_ENCRYPT_BLOCK = 117;

    /**
     * RSA最大解密密文大小
     */
    private static final int MAX_DECRYPT_BLOCK = 128;

    /**
     * 获取密钥对
     *
     * @return 密钥对
     */
    public static KeyPair getKeyPair() throws Exception {
        KeyPairGenerator generator = KeyPairGenerator.getInstance("RSA");
        generator.initialize(1024);
        return generator.generateKeyPair();
    }

    /**
     * 获取私钥
     *
     * @param privateKey 私钥字符串
     * @return
     */
    public static PrivateKey getPrivateKey(String privateKey) throws Exception {
        KeyFactory keyFactory = KeyFactory.getInstance("RSA");
        byte[] decodedKey = Base64.decodeBase64(privateKey.getBytes());
        PKCS8EncodedKeySpec keySpec = new PKCS8EncodedKeySpec(decodedKey);
        return keyFactory.generatePrivate(keySpec);
    }

    /**
     * 获取公钥
     *
     * @param publicKey 公钥字符串
     * @return
     */
    public static PublicKey getPublicKey(String publicKey) throws Exception {
        KeyFactory keyFactory = KeyFactory.getInstance("RSA");
        byte[] decodedKey = Base64.decodeBase64(publicKey.getBytes());
        X509EncodedKeySpec keySpec = new X509EncodedKeySpec(decodedKey);
        return keyFactory.generatePublic(keySpec);
    }

    /**
     * RSA加密
     *
     * @param data 待加密数据
     * @param publicKey 公钥
     * @return
     */
    public static String encrypt(String data, PublicKey publicKey) throws Exception {
        Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance("RSA");
        cipher.init(Cipher.ENCRYPT_MODE, publicKey);
        int inputLen = data.getBytes().length;
        ByteArrayOutputStream out = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
        int offset = 0;
        byte[] cache;
        int i = 0;
        // 对数据分段加密
        while (inputLen - offset > 0) {
            if (inputLen - offset > MAX_ENCRYPT_BLOCK) {
                cache = cipher.doFinal(data.getBytes(), offset, MAX_ENCRYPT_BLOCK);
            } else {
                cache = cipher.doFinal(data.getBytes(), offset, inputLen - offset);
            }
            out.write(cache, 0, cache.length);
            i++;
            offset = i * MAX_ENCRYPT_BLOCK;
        }
        byte[] encryptedData = out.toByteArray();
        out.close();
        // 获取加密内容使用base64进行编码,并以UTF-8为标准转化成字符串
        // 加密后的字符串
        return new String(Base64.encodeBase64String(encryptedData));
    }

    /**
     * RSA解密
     *
     * @param data 待解密数据
     * @param privateKey 私钥
     * @return
     */
    public static String decrypt(String data, PrivateKey privateKey) throws Exception {
        Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance("RSA");
        cipher.init(Cipher.DECRYPT_MODE, privateKey);
        byte[] dataBytes = Base64.decodeBase64(data);
        int inputLen = dataBytes.length;
        ByteArrayOutputStream out = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
        int offset = 0;
        byte[] cache;
        int i = 0;
        // 对数据分段解密
        while (inputLen - offset > 0) {
            if (inputLen - offset > MAX_DECRYPT_BLOCK) {
                cache = cipher.doFinal(dataBytes, offset, MAX_DECRYPT_BLOCK);
            } else {
                cache = cipher.doFinal(dataBytes, offset, inputLen - offset);
            }
            out.write(cache, 0, cache.length);
            i++;
            offset = i * MAX_DECRYPT_BLOCK;
        }
        byte[] decryptedData = out.toByteArray();
        out.close();
        // 解密后的内容
        return new String(decryptedData, "UTF-8");
    }

    /**
     * 签名
     *
     * @param data 待签名数据
     * @param privateKey 私钥
     * @return 签名
     */
    public static String sign(String data, PrivateKey privateKey) throws Exception {
        byte[] keyBytes = privateKey.getEncoded();
        PKCS8EncodedKeySpec keySpec = new PKCS8EncodedKeySpec(keyBytes);
        KeyFactory keyFactory = KeyFactory.getInstance("RSA");
        PrivateKey key = keyFactory.generatePrivate(keySpec);
        Signature signature = Signature.getInstance("MD5withRSA");
        signature.initSign(key);
        signature.update(data.getBytes());
        return new String(Base64.encodeBase64(signature.sign()));
    }

    /**
     * 验签
     *
     * @param srcData 原始字符串
     * @param publicKey 公钥
     * @param sign 签名
     * @return 是否验签通过
     */
    public static boolean verify(String srcData, PublicKey publicKey, String sign) throws Exception {
        byte[] keyBytes = publicKey.getEncoded();
        X509EncodedKeySpec keySpec = new X509EncodedKeySpec(keyBytes);
        KeyFactory keyFactory = KeyFactory.getInstance("RSA");
        PublicKey key = keyFactory.generatePublic(keySpec);
        Signature signature = Signature.getInstance("MD5withRSA");
        signature.initVerify(key);
        signature.update(srcData.getBytes());
        return signature.verify(Base64.decodeBase64(sign.getBytes()));
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        try {
            // 生成密钥对
            KeyPair keyPair = getKeyPair();
            String privateKey = new String(Base64.encodeBase64(keyPair.getPrivate().getEncoded()));
            String publicKey = new String(Base64.encodeBase64(keyPair.getPublic().getEncoded()));
            System.out.println("私钥:" + privateKey);
            System.out.println("公钥:" + publicKey);
            // RSA加密
            String data = "需要加密的内容";
            String encryptData = encrypt(data, getPublicKey(publicKey));
            System.out.println("加密后内容:" + encryptData);
            // RSA解密
            String decryptData = decrypt(encryptData, getPrivateKey(privateKey));
            System.out.println("解密后内容:" + decryptData);

            // RSA签名
            String sign = sign(data, getPrivateKey(privateKey));
            // RSA验签
            boolean result = verify(data, getPublicKey(publicKey), sign);
            System.out.print("验签结果:" + result);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
            System.out.print("加解密异常");
        }
    }
}

运行结果:

在这里插入图片描述

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